Role of media in Islamophobia:
Since then, the ongoing conflicts and terrorism inflicted by those claiming to be acting in the name of Islam, has meant that Islam — and its sincere adherents — are often negatively portrayed in the mass media, and regarded pejoratively by wider society. This has led to a distinct rise in anti-Muslim incidents and Islamophobic attitudes, as evinced in countless polls and in Hate Crime statistics.
Muslim as the other:
Secondary trauma can be associated with all of the same events as those of first-hand trauma, except that the trauma is experienced vicariously through hearing stories of others, or seeing images or hearing reports through media. Vicarious trauma can also be experienced through contact with others who have been traumatized and by association (when people are linked by race, religions or other characteristics to others who have been involved in violent events). For Muslims, being marginalized and categorized as ‘the other’ in this context can be traumatic. It is important to note that the physical, emotional, psychological, spiritual and social impacts of secondary trauma can be as real and as deeply seeded as for those who have experienced the trauma directly.
Also this charter is awesome.